atxular

One of the Popular Foundation for Basque Studies (FPEV) goals is to spread history and thoughts.

Publication of books is one of the formulas chosen to do so, that we carry on through Atxular Atea (publishing house).

The published books are available in some bookstores and in this website.

 

 Elcrepusculodedios

 

 

Could be that the result of all this history of relations between Church-religion and socio-political environment remains as a pending task in the Basque society. In which instead of searching for an adequate solution to the problem, we continue to ignore the problem by a pragmatism tactical capable of ensuring the power to a more or less hegemonic nationalism in its instrumental idea of modern culture.

In any case, the reader will find in this book all the historical information needed to get closer to the evolution of this relationship always problematic in all European societies, to meet the changing contexts in its approach, and the specific difficulties that has found its resolution in the case of the modern history of the Basque society.

A necessary book and essential if we want, although with delay, the Basque society can enter in the parameters of the culture that inherits the principles of the Enlightenment.

 

Prologe by Joseba Arregi

 

Presentation by Mikel Azurmendi in San Sebastián (2017/09/02)icono pdf

 

 

I
     ISBN de El Crepúsculo de Dios  es 978-84-945037-2-6
      Número de páginas: 598.
      Depósito legal: BI-1419-2016.

 

 

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NoblezaConLibertad

NOBILITY WITH FREEDOM

BIOGRAPHY OF THE BASQUE RIGHT

PEDRO JOSÉ CHACÓN DELGADO

 

 

 

  

  

We are at the first attempt to address a global history of the Basque right, whose route goes from the Cadiz Cortes until the start of the Spanish Transition. As a first approximation, we try to score as precisely as possible the list of members and their ideological production, producing 64 records of politicians and intellectuals of unquestionable belonging to the Basque right in all its currents. Theoretical and methodological guidelines are marked, so that we can talk about Basque right in a period and a policy area where almost all the specialists have focused on the study of the roots of Basque nationalism. This conceptual confusion, which may be called "theory of Basque prenationalism" is analysed. Its main consequence has been the concealment or systematic misrepresentation of a major sector of political Basque history that was none other than the liberal-conservative and traditionalist right. This sector dominated the Basque political landscape throughout the nineteenth century, in parallel with the Spanish right at the time, with whom it had strong ties and mutual interest, both in the defence of the Crown as the common historical past. But also some differences such as defence of historical privileges, as the own and main political culture of the Basque right in its history. From this perspective one can understand better both the emergence of Basque nationalism, which supposed a genuine break from tradition, as well as the historical injustice suffered by the Basque right after the Transition, when it was only and exclusively assimilated with one of the currents, the newest one, and in principle minority, of those which formed their historical identity: the Francoist current.

 

Pedro Jose Chacón Delgado

“Nobleza con libertad , biografía de la derecha vasca”

Editorial Atxular Atea

688 paginas

Edición impresa 30 euros

ISBN 978-84-942480-4-7

Depósito legal BI-1086-2015

 

 

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NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN PNV AND FRANCONegociacionesDelPnvConFranco.pdf

DURING THE CIVIL WAR.

CARLOS MARÍA OLAZABAL ESTECHA

For the first time, the complete documentation of secret negotiations for the surrender of the Basque nationalists to Franco is published integrated and contextualized.
It includes documents on both sides that give the key and course of the negotiations that began before the uprising and eventually culminated in the surrender. The author has made a thorough investigation of documentary sources, in Spain, Italy and the Vatican, getting the keys to the negotiations that, guaranteed by the Vatican and Italy, led to the taking of Bilbao and the Left margin without resistance and the final surrender in masse to the Italian fascists August 24, 1937 in Santoña.

Secret documents, which shed light on other tragic events such as the attacks on prisons, the expulsion of the Bishop Mugica, the execution of nationalist priests, the bombings in Durango and Guernica, the renditions of Bilbao and Baracaldo, or the personal hostages of Jose Antonio Aguirre.

 

 

 

De Carlos María Olazábal Estecha

Editorial ATXULAR ATEA

ISBN 978-84-942480-2-3

PVP 30 Euros Edición impresa

 

 

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ORIGINS, IDEOLOGY AND Nacionalismo

 

EVOLUTION OF PNV.

BASQUE NATIONALISM

JOSEBA ARREGI ARANBURU

Joseba Arregi Aranburu, head analyst of the political and social situation in the Basque Country, makes a profound reflection on the ideological evolution of the Basque Nationalist Party. It goes from the origins of PNV (Basque Nationalist Party), characterized by their ultraconservative and religious affiliation, to present times, through the steps that have led to an obvious ideological vagueness of PNV. But despite this lack of definition they have held Basque political hegemony since the times of the Spanish democratic transition.
In this work, the reader will find a dispassionate analysis of the historical and ideological evolution of Basque Nationalism along modern times and the vicissitudes that have formed the current attitudes of the leaders of PNV. An analysis that, without exclusion of any kind, will go through internal tensions between autonomists and secessionists, division of the nationalist forces as a result of the emergence of the nationalist left, or conditioning of the political activity of nationalists and non-nationalists by the existence and action of ETA.

265 págs.; 21 cm x 15 cm; Rústica

Precio: 20 € edición impresa| ISBN 978-84-942480-6-1

Depósito Legal: BI-591-2013

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BRIEF HISTORY OF BISCAY AND ITS INSTITUTIONS

Vizcaya

ASCENSIÓN PASTOR PORRES

BEATRIZ SALAVERRI AGUILAR

Vizcaya or Bizkaia. Both ways have been known throughout history this small territory that in the Middle Ages was established as a seigniorial jurisdiction, which would later integrate other territories that previously were not part of it. This double designation, Basque and Spanish, is a clear example of the double condition of Vizcaya-Bizkaia. From a Basque side, with their own distinctive features, and from a Spanish side because it was part of the Crown of Castile with other medieval kingdoms and territories, after which it participated in the formation of the Crown of Spain. Let us not forget, in this regard, that the Lordship of Biscay ended up falling by inheritance in the king of Castile in the fourteenth century.

This book aims to bring to the general reader this dual reality of Vizcaya-Bizkaia, highlighting, through its history, its own personality and its collaboration with the other Basque territories and the rest of Spain to establish this kingdom from the late Middle Ages to the present day.

 

2ª Edición

316 págs.; 21 cm x 15 cm; Rústica

Precio: 20 € edición impresa |ISBN 978-84-942480-9-2

DL BI 1970/2011

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BRIEF HISTORY OF ALAVA AND ITS INSTITUTIONS

Alava

EDUARDO INCLÁN GIL


In recent times, when we hear about the History of our Province, it is always with the purpose to try to justify any initiative, usually related to political or tax administrative issues. There is also an inexorable process of trying to dilute the particularity of the History of Alava in favour of a misconstrued union with the History of Basque Country. As if one were to strengthen its common elements to public opinion, hiding or marginalizing the differences or particularities of our past. In the case of Alava, events such as the Voluntary Surrender (1332), the integration of the lands of the Plains in the overall governance of Castile, the creation of the Brotherhood of Alava as founder process of the common institutions (1458) and the consolidation of the post of Deputy General as ordinary representative of the king in Álava since the reform of 1534, or in more recent times, the maintenance of the Economic Agreement with the Central State continuously since 1878, give certain particularities to the process of establishing our Historical Territory.

It is not about colliding with our neighbours, let alone Basque historical privileges or “alavesism”, but to see the full past of our Province, as well as the origin and evolution of our institutions of self-government. It is about delving with a more academic tone into those issues with little diffusion at a social level, the feeling of being from Alava, so little present in the panorama of the last decades of our Province. That is, from knowledge to the feeling, avoiding misunderstandings or interested manipulations

 

281 págs.; 21 cm x 15 cm; Rústica

Precio: 20 € edición impresa | ISBN 978-84-942480-8-5

DL 1971/2011

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BRIEF HISTORY OF GUIPUZKOA AND ITS INSTITUTIONS

JOSE LUIS ORELLA MARTÍNEZ

Gipuzkoa

The history of Guipuzcoa portrays a beautiful land, open to the sea, populated by brave people who were able to find the secret paths to circle world for the first time, and to sail around the remote territories of an empire where the sun never set. Its smallness was never an issue, in a fertile land with men of great initiative. Since ancient times, the wild rivers fed the forges where the iron removed from inside the earth tamed. They forged this ferrous materials to make weapons and ship tools that arrived to the end of the world.
This book aims to describe a land of men proud of their household and lineage of their race, which they never intended to undermine with a universal spirit. Sailors and soldiers arrived to the ends of the Land of fire, while their missionaries spread throughout the world, led by that Cantabrian wind. The people from Guipuzcoa were capable to confront the challenges that came to them without losing the root of their identity or membership to a common historical community.
It is about to know and understand the facts in correspondence with reality, and from there extract the history’s reason, in the words of Ortega y Gasset. We intend that way, understanding what Guipuzcoa was in the past, so we can build its future.

 

293 págs.; 21 cm x 15 cm; Rústica

Precio: 20 € edición impresa | ISBN 978-84-942480-7-8

DL 2184/2011

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RaicesRaices

"Roots of Freedom" is the human story of twenty-four people killed by ETA, who belonged to the centre-right parties that have formed the current Popular Party in the Basque Country.
“Unión del Centro Democrático”, “Alianza Popular”, “Coalición Popular-Unión Foral” and the Popular Party suffered and suffer the treacherous pursuit of nationalist terrorism of ETA with the clear intention of exterminating their choice in the Basque Country. In fact, terrorists they nearly reached their goal in the 80s, but failed in the decade of the 90. The failure of that strategy is the origin and cause of the defeat of ETA.
The work undertakes the obligation and heartfelt reconstruction of the life of these victims and their families, in tribute to their sacrifice and recognition of their memory. Memory and recognition extends to almost nine hundred victims from different backgrounds, professions and ideological choices that have been killed by ETA and their families.

All of them and their sacrifice are the real and authentic roots of freedom of the Basques and of all Spaniards.
262 pp.; 21 cm x 15 cm; rustic
Price: 20 € Print edition | ISBN: 978-84-615-0648-4

 DL 324/2011

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pactosytraiciones

pactos0

 

PACTS AND BETRAYALS


The secret files of the war in the Basque Country. Vol. I, II and III


This work collects in three volumes the most
exhaustive investigation made so far of negotiations between the Basque Nationalist Party and the military rebels on July 18, which led to the renowned surrender of the Basque Army in Santoña to the Corpo Truppe Volontarie Army (CTV).                                                                              
It completely transcribes 962 documents referred overwhelmingly to the negotiations between the PNV and Franco. The documents were obtained from various archival sources in the Basque Country (Archivo del Nacionalismo Vasco de la Fundación Sabino Arana of the Basque Nationalist Party and Centro de Patrimonio Documental de Euskadi of the Basque Government), as in the rest of Spain (the file of Cardinal Gomá found in Archivo Diocesano de Toledo, as well as Archivo General Militar de Ávila y de Segovia, Archivo Histórico Nacional and Centro Documental de la Memoria Histórica de Salamanca, and Archivo General del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores of Madrid).

In addition, the author incorporates for the first time translated files and Italian sources in a complete form from Archivio Storico - Diplomatico del Ministerio degli Affari Esteri, Ufficio Spagna and Archivio Ufficio Storico dello Statu Maggiore dell `Esercito, OMS Oltremare Spagna; in the last file the reader can find the full daily documentation that Italian General Staff officers maintained with nationalist leaders since April 1937 and that led to the surrender of Santoña in August 1937.



Price: 100 (printed Complete Works) | ISBN: 978-84-613-4369-0

 

Pactos1

 

 

PACTS & TREASONS.

Vol. I "From San Sebastian to the Pact of Bilbao"

CARLOS MARIA OLAZABAL ESTECHA

 

 

 

 

The position adopted by the PNV in Guipúzcoa, on the night of July 18, before the uprising of the military uprising in Africa, will be situated at the center of the hurricane unleashed. After months of plotting as an active element in the revolt or, at least, a neutral element before the same from his position of the Catholic party, his alliance with the Popular Front, persecutor of the Church in Spain, is going to create a chasm in the Basque Country and in Spain. At the same time, the military rebels are faced with an opposition that they did not expect, even an ally lost, creating for them a serious international problem, propaganda and religious. Such a situation moves the interest of Nationalists and the Church in achieving the PNV to change sides or, at least, their non-belligerency in the Cainite conflict, carrying out negotiations to achieve such an objective since July, 1936.

During the months of July, August and September of 1936 the contacts are permanent. The fall of San Sebastian without resistance thanks to the Nationalists not present practically in the battle fronts, the talks will fail before the provision by the Government of the Popular Front of the Basque Statute of October 36.

But the euphoria of the Statute is going to contrast with the failure, on December 36, of the offensive of the Basque Government troops on Vitoria, in the famous battle of Villareal (current Legutiano, Alava). Defeat which is the expression of the inability to occupy a city open without defense and garrison, by a numerous army but without officials or unit. The situation places the PNV before a new scenario: the attempt to seek a separate peace, saving what has been achieved, trying to return to the previous situation of the horrible crossroads to choose a side.

These negotiations in the waiting for the winter of 37 will be develop by many different links, driven and sustained perhaps not coincidentally by a number of Jesuits, with the leadership of the Vatican and Monsignor Goma, with comings and goings -- even at the opposite field-, and which will end - in spite of the bombing of Guernica, with an offer of the Vatican to Franco, and it will be forwarded to the PNV on behalf of the Pope to concretize the surrender of Bilbao and the Nationalists. The offer that has been denied systematically in its reception by the Nationalists and that this documentation denies.

Conditions offered that for many authors were fulfilled, both by some as by others, mainly in the respect to the industry and in the lack of reprisals. An offer which included, among others, the maintenance of the Economic Agreement, and a special political and administrative status, such as the province of Alava and Navarre.


 

402 págs.; 30,5 Cm x 22,5 Cm; Rústica

Precio: 100 € (Obra completa impresa) | ISBN: 978-84-613-4370-6

 

 

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Pactos2

PACTS & TREASONS.

Vol. II "From the Pact of Bilbao to the Pact of Santoña"

CARLOS MARIA OLAZABAL ESTECHA

 

 

 

 

 

The months of May and June of 1937 have a parallel secret and life to the fight in the front of Biscay. Triggered the offensive in April, while the Nationalist systematically occupy the territory, the negotiations between all intensified in the search for a mediation and a victory. The negotiation of Franco with Aguirre, during the month of May, it seems it is going to fail, but there is always an interlocutor and everything is possible up to the last minute.

In parallel it would be open a new channel as a guarantee of the Covenant of surrender, when the Government of Mussolini, with the approval of Franco and the Vatican- starts their direct contacts with the PNV through the P. Onaindia, informal representative of Aguirre. Contacts and negotiations to be concluded in the Covenant of Santoña, four months later.

All of these negotiations will be realize initially with the surrender of Bilbao and the left margin of Nervión, with the conditions required by Franco; that is to say, without the destruction of Bilbao or of the industrial fabric of the estuary. The surrender of the Nationalists  battalions, under what some authors have referred to as the "Pact of Bilbao", will be the preamble to the surrender in the "Pact of Santoña".

The Priest Onaindia met and document his negotiations with the Italians gathering the information in a book published during the eighties, almost impossible to access it. Up to the present, it was the only source of that event.

 On June 4, 1944 the American troops enter in Rome, occupying the city and among other things their files, in order to be able to demand accountability to the hierarchs fascists. Thanks to that action, the Italian documentation referring to the Spanish civil war has come without expurgate to the current times.

Although some studies have been carried out in Spain on the Italian diplomatic documentation, it had never been accessed and published the documentation of the Italian Army referred to the negotiation of the "Pact of Santoña". Now is the time to do so.

It is tens of notes, reports and documents coming from the own Mario Roatta (Mancini), Head of the Italian Military Information Service and second of the mission in Spain of the CTV.

Roatta was the man who negotiated with all the delegates of the PNV and through the documents he tells about, day to day, and sometimes almost, hour by hour, all the negotiation to his superiors.

This historical documentation allows you to clarify the commitment of José Antonio Aguirre in these negotiations, the attitude of Franco before them, and the outcome of the covenants that were explained to us as upcoming events.

 

453 págs.; 30,5 Cm x 22,5 Cm; Rústica

Precio: 100 € (Obra Completa) | ISBN: 978-84-613-4371-3

 

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Pactos3

 

PACTS & TREASONS.

Vol. III "The End"

CARLOS MARIA OLAZABAL ESTECHA

 

 

 

 

The day August 24 1937, at 24 hours, was the date and the time limit set by Ajurriaguerra and the head of the CTV, General Doria, for the surrender and pass all the Nationalists battalions to the Corpo Truppe Volontarie.

The negotiations had been initiated on June 25 by the interlocutors themselves in the Palace of Horacio Echevarrieta in Punta Begoña (Neguri-Guecho), in the twilight of the national offensive on Vizcaya. For the time of the meeting with the Italians the EBB of the PNV had selected a significant group of hostages to safeguard their lives. All of them are going to be moved to Cabo Mayor (Santander) on July 1 or 2 adjacent to the chalet where the Lehendakari Aguirre and the most important leaders of the EBB had fixed their residence.

The noon of the day August 23, 1937 Ajurriaguerra, flights to Santander from Biarritz to "direct the execution of the agreement." On the same noon the EBB meets with Aguirre in Cabo Mayor and, on the morning of 24, the aircraft "NEGUS" takes off landing an hour later and arriving at Biarritz with Aguirre, Monzon and de la Torre. Ajurriaguerra will give the order to evacuate Santander in the morning, and the life of the hostages will undertake a capricious fate.

On the day 24, the EBB meet in Laredo they dispose the exit of their members after dinner. Again the aircraft "NEGUS" translate the President of the EBB, Ciaurriz, but before the end it will make one more trip; the following day it will come out with the Commissioners of the Euzko Gudarostea, Lejarcegui and Ugarte, the military responsibles of the pact.

On the night from the 24 to the 25, the captains Pujana and Eguillor inform to the EBB of the Pact of Guriezo, but in the limit of 24 to 24 no one had not been surrender… nor the boats hired two months ago have arrived. Not all of the leaders of the PNV are going to be able to go out, because they do not have sufficient hostages.

The Italian documentation will reflect the events hour by hour. To this information will be added the one exchanged between Franco and Mussolini on the fulfillment of the Pact, besides the one prepared by the Nationalists responsible to explain the execution of the same, both publicly by José Antonio Aguirre, and the secret reports of the Nationalist Commissioners, Lejarcegi and Ugarte, and the Euzkadi Buru Batzar of the PNV.

The silenced opinions of the Santander Republican leaders will be the counterpoint of the information and of the decisions of their leaders.

This is the story of a party caught in the vortex of war and in the deep contradiction between their way of thinking and acting. They tried to situate themselves beyond a tragedy that their political leaders had helped to create, thinking that it was not their own dispute, but of the Spanish. It was a betrayal to each other with dramatic consequences for all.

465 págs.; 30,5 Cm x 22,5 Cm; Rústica

Precio: 100 € (Obra completa impresa) | ISBN: 978-84-613-4372-0


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Ciceron

CICERO’S ELECTION MANUAL

ARTURO IGNACIO ALDEKOA RUIZ

Prologue by Leopoldo Barreda

The four speeches delivered by Cicero before the Senate and the Roman people to unmask the Conspiracy of Catiline (“Catilinarias” in Spanish), are perhaps the masterpiece of Ciceronian oratory. Since its publication (slightly retouched probably by Cicero to adapt oratorical pieces as written works) are a key benchmark of universal political history along with the philippics of Demosthenes.

But Marcus Tullius was not the only Cicero that left us famous writings. His brother Quintus also wrote the "Commentariolum Petitionis", a small manual for the election campaign directed to his brother for the elections to the consulate of the year 63 BC. It contains a number of tips perennial value to make voters support the candidate in their electoral aspirations. Besides fun, the manual reflects how little has humanity changed during all this time.


To read the Cicerones (either Marco Tulio, or his brother Quintus) it is not only interesting and fun, but it allows us to better understand the human nature, and therefore better known of ourselves, which is, as the inscription of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi states, the secret of wisdom.


2nd Edition trilingual: Spanish, Basque, English

 

299 págs.; 21 cm x 15 cm; Rústica

Precio: 20€ Edición impresa; | ISBN 978-84-613-3153-6

D.L. BI 909/2013

 

 

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Concejal

COUNCILLOR’S MANUAL IN BASQUE COUNTRY

LAURA ARANA AGUIRRE

ÁNGEL ZURITA LAGUNA

 

The purpose of this book is to bring to the councillors of the Basque Country, an agile instrument to carry out their work. Therefore it is written descriptively, without footnotes and with an eminently practical purpose.



This Councillor’s manual in the Basque Country exposes the organization and functioning of local governments, so that Councilors can carry out their work more knowledgeably. Therefore it focuses mainly in city councils, more than in other local entities.

As it regards the Basque Country, this book describes the specific features of the first Additional Provision of the Constitution, the Statute of Autonomy, the system of Economic Agreement and the implementing legislation, both state and regional.



This Manual refers to temporary space in 2014. So the recent local reform operated within the basic legislation by the enactment of Law 27/2013, of December 27, about rationalization and sustainability of local government, has great relevance and receives an special attention.

 

290 págs.; 21 cm x 15 cm; Rústica

Precio: 30 € |ISBN 978-84-942480-0-9

Depósito Legal: BI-1286-2013

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RADIOGRAPHY OF BASQUEEconomia

ECONOMY 2012

 

CARLOS RODRÍGUEZ GONZÁLEZ

ANA MARÍA GONZÁLEZ FLORES

CATALINA GÁLVEZ GÁLVEZ

In one of the most difficult moments in recent decades of European, Spanish and Basque economy, the authors provide an overview of the main economic and social magnitudes of the Basque Country. With simple language, an informative approach and aimed at a non-specialist audience, this book enables an in-depth view of the main variables that underpin the Basque economy and the society that depends of this economy. This work, far from topics, allows the reader an understanding of our strengths and weaknesses in the task of economic recovery and the challenges we face to keep our living standards.

247 págs.; 24cm x 17 cm; Rústica

Precio: 20 € | ISBN 978-84-942480-5-4

Depósito Legal: BI-1233-2013

 

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